Characteristics of mature skin
Ageing is a genetically programmed process that is inevitable and affects all organs in the body, including the skin. Aged skin appears dry, wrinkled, and pigmented spots may appear. All this is a reflection of structural and functional changes of the skin.
Mature skin has all the characteristics of dry skin due to a weakened barrier function and a reduced amount of natural moisturising factor. The amount of lipids in the skin decreases, and the composition of sebum also changes.
We distinguish two processes of skin ageing, internal and external ageing. All ageing is the result of internal (intrinsic) and external (extrinsic) ageing.
Internal ageing is a natural process in which genetics, hormones and metabolic processes in particular are involved, and we cannot influence it. However, external ageing is further accelerated by the influence of external factors, especially ultraviolet radiation, with the formation of radicals playing a key role.
Internal, intrinsic ageing is naturally physiological or. chronological ageing, which begins after the age of twenty-five, usually in women earlier than in men.
Mature skin is thin, dry, loses its tension and becomes increasingly loose and wrinkled.
Characteristic changes on mature skin are the result of gradual deterioration and slowed down action of ingredients in all layers of the skin:
1 Epidermis: The entire epidermis becomes thinner. It lacks a natural moisturising factor that has the ability to bind water. Because there are also fewer epidermal lipids, transepidermal water loss increases.
- Dermis: It contains the most pronounced changes in the structural elements in the ageing process. The dermis is also thinning. There are fewer and fewer fibroblasts (the main cells of the dermis) that produce collagen and elastin. Collagen fibers harden, thicken and are improperly distributed. Due to the smaller number of connective fibers, the dermis loses its flexibility and firmness. In addition to the altered collagen and elastin fibers, there is also less hyaluronic acid, which reduces the ability to bind water. The number of small veins is also reduced.
- Subcutaneous tissue: The adipose tissue under the skin thins and is unevenly distributed.
- Skin appendages: The number and excretion of sweat glands is reduced, sebaceous glands also secrete less sebum, so there is a lack of ingredients for the formation of a hydro-lipid layer on the skin, which causes poorer barrier function of the skin.
External, extrinsic skin ageing depends on exposure to various environmental factors. Unlike internal ageing, it can be slowed down. Extrinsic ageing is caused by many factors (polluted atmosphere, some chemicals, exposure to the sun or UV radiation, wind, cold) and lifestyle (cigarette smoke, alcohol, inadequate diet, lack of sleep, stress). One of the main environmental factors that affects premature skin ageing (causes as much as 80% of changes associated with ageing) is the UV radiation of the sun and artificial sources, so such ageing is also called photoageing.
Characteristics of photoaging skin
Due to the faster proliferation of melanocytes, pigment signs appear – sunspots. Prolonged exposure to UV rays also damages fibroblasts, which disrupts the maturation and formation of connective fibers. Most damage to the skin is caused by enzymes (activated by the resulting radicals) that break down collagen and elastin. There is a decrease in the amount of collagen and cross-linking of collagen fibers, and at the same time damage to elastin. The skin loses firmness and becomes wrinkled.
Prolonged or repeated exposure to UV radiation depletes the capacity of antioxidant systems in the skin. A state of oxidative stress occurs, leading to photoageing of the skin.
Internal ageing is an inevitable process that cannot be stopped. We can make a significant contribution to slowing down premature external ageing:
– with timely and proper skin care (moisturising, adding lipids, adding antioxidants…),
– with proper protection against the harmful effects of UV rays,
– with a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition.
However, we must not forget that ageing is a natural process that we must accept.
You are kindly invited to express your natural beauty with Mayarula cosmetics. Your skin will be nourished, moisturised, soft and with less wrinkles.
Mayarula natural skincare line can help you express your natural beauty. Your skin will be nourished, rejuvenated, softer and with less visible fine lines.