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During winter, your skin needs protecting as well as moisturising

When the outside temperature changes, so must our skin care regime. Big temperature changes (cold air outside and heated air indoors) dry our skin and cause imbalance in our natural protection system. This is why we must use richer and more nourishing products to renew our skin and restore balance. 


When the cold air penetrates our protective skin barrier, water from the skin starts to evaporate, while at the same time lowers our skin’s defences from damageing external influences. This also makes the skin more susceptible to allergens and infections. Such damaged skin becomes dry, cracked, peeling,and is often itchy, red and painful. 

During winter, the appropriate skin care is paramount and we must pay it even more attention than at other times of the year.

Our skin needs protecting as well as moisturising so it is best to use products that do both. They should include emollients and occlusives. Such products have rich, nourishing emulsions, as is our Intensive Antioxidant Cream.


The Intensive Antioxidant Cream has been created to provide extensive care for mature and very dry skin. It helps combat the ageing process, offers intensive skin hydration and regeneration. This rich nourishing cream contains a high proportion of herbal oils (marula, argan, macadamia, wheat germs, pomegranate, and sea buckthorn), phytosterols and an abundance of antioxidants. Seaweed extract also stimulates collagen synthesis and improves skin elasticity, reducing the appearance of wrinkles.

Emollients are cosmetic ingredients that provide skin’s own and its related lipids. They help with skin smoothening and softening. Skin’s own emollients are butters and ceramides. Skin related emollients are phytosterols.

Occlusives create a semi-permeable layer that inhibits the evaporation of water or transepidermal water loss. This enhances skin moisturisation which is important for its normal functioning. 

However, with extremely dry skin this is not sufficient which is why it is recommended to use other means of hydration.

Cosmetic ingredients with a pronounced occlusive action are also waxes, which can be herbal, e.g. jojoba, candelabra, carnava… or waxes from animal origin. Among the waxes of animal origin, beeswax is the best known.

The groups of emollients and occlusions are included in all products of the Mayarula cosmetic line that have lipophilic components. These are: Vitamin Oil Serum, Cleansing Milk with Papaya Extract, moisturising Day Cream, Intensive Antioxidant Cream, Antioxidant under-eye balm and Peptide Eye Serum.


Natural oils

Natural oils are increasingly at the forefront and play the role of the most unique ingredients in natural cosmetics. The reasons for this are the widespread trend of returning to nature, as well as the fact that they are widely represented in the plant world, that their use for medical and cosmetic purposes is based on thousands of years of experience and that they are a rich source of physiologically active substances. natural oils should be cold pressed, unrefined and preferably organic.

Natural oils are complex, rich in many compounds and versatile lipids. Many of the ingredients they contain are also found in our skin, which is why it tolerates them so well and even needs them. They are rich in active ingredients that stimulate the formation of new cells, improve skin moisture and prevent the formation of free radicals.

The main share is covered by triglycerides. Chemically, these are esters of glycerol and medium or long chain fatty acids. Most of the triglycerides in oils are saturated fatty acids, which make them semi-solid or solid at room temperature and melt at body temperature. In oils, the main share is contributed by monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, so they are usually liquid at room temperature.

Triglycerides or fatty acids are carriers of physicochemical properties and effects of oils and fats. Phospholipids and other accompanying substances (called unsaponifiable substances), such as phytosterols, squalene, phenols, terpenoids, carotenoids and vitamin E, also contribute significantly to its action.

There are two groups of essential fatty acids, namely Omega-3 (α-linolenic acid) and Omega-6 (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid) fatty acids. Topical application of lipids rich in essential fatty acids strengthens and repairs barrier function, reduces transepidermal water loss, has anti-inflammatory and anti-irritant effects. It is beneficial for endangered skin in winter as well as for mature skin. Mature skin has a weakened skin barrier, which is reflected in dry skin. Mature people have fewer lipids in their skin, so the barrier recovery function is disproportionately long.

Active oils that contain α-linolenic acid, which is the most regenerative of fatty acids, are e.g. cranberry oil, rosehip oil, strawberry seed oil and others. These are also represented in the products of the Mayarula cosmetic line, in addition to two extremely healing active oils – pomegranate oil and sea buckthorn oil, and of course other stable and basic oils.

In addition to cold-pressed oils of rich composition, Mayarula products also contain moisturisers, which are a key ingredient in dry skin.


Moisturisers are another group of active ingredients that are indispensable for the normal functioning of the skin. Thus, in unfavourable conditions (cold, relative low humidity), which contribute to increased water loss from the skin, they are also the first step of rejuvenating cosmetics. Over the years, the skin becomes drier and drier, so the inclusion of ingredients that have moisturising properties and strengthen the barrier function is very important.

Emollients, occlusions and moisturisers work in different ways, creating a synergistic effect when used together.


Moisturisers are cosmetic ingredients for moisturising the skin, they increase the water content in the skin. moisturisers include compounds found in the skin’s natural moisturising factor, e.g. amino acids and their salts, other organic acids and their salts (lactic acid, Na-lactate, Na-pyrrolidone carboxylate), glycerol and urea.

Other water-binding compounds are also effective, e.g. hyaluronic acid and other polysaccharides (gums and mucus), proteins (elastane, collagen, milk, wheat and silk proteins), sugars and sugar alcohols (glycerol, honey, sorbitol) and other organic moisturisers (allantoin, betaine, urea).


Examples of moisturisers found in the products of the Mayarula cosmetics line:


Hyaluronic acid – Water-soluble hyaluronic acid is used for cosmetic purposes. For the Mayarula cosmetic line, I chose a trio of hyaluronates (with low, high and oligo molecular weight), as they differ in properties and function. Hyaluronates act as moisturising ingredients primarily with a moisture-retaining film.

Hyaluronic acid is found in Floral Moisturising Serum.


Sodium pyrrolidone carboxylate or Sodium PCA is one of the most effective moisturising ingredients and acts as a low molecular weight hygroscopic molecule that binds water to itself. It is an integral part of the skin’s natural moisturising factor and also acts as an accelerator of the penetration of other cosmetically active ingredients.

It is found in Floral Moisturising Serum and Peptide Eye Serum.


Glycerol is obtained by hydrolysis of fats from natural oils. It is one of the most effective and frequently used moisturisers. Glycerol has a low molecular weight hygroscopic molecule that binds water from the deeper basal layer of the epidermis to the stratum corneum and increases the moisture content of this layer.


Glycerol as a stand-alone active ingredient is found in Cleansing Milk with Papaya Extract and in Moisturising Day Cream. Due to the presence of glycerol, some plant extracts also help keep the skin moisturised and are thus a good moisturiser: acerola extract (in Floral Moisturising Serum), Pomegranate Extract (in Flower Tonic with Aloe Vera and in Intensive Antioxidant Cream), Papaya Extract (in Cleansing Milk with Papaya Extract) and extract of the common mallow (in Peptide Eye Serum) present due to in itself a moisturising action.


Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid produced by the fermentation of sugar. It is a component of a natural moisturising factor. It is a powerful and effective moisturiser.

It is found in Moisturising Day Cream and Intensive Antioxidant Cream.


Betaine is used as a moisturiser that has no sensory effect on the skin (it does not give a sticky feeling). It acts as an osmolyte and regulates the water level inside the cells. For my cosmetic line, I chose organically certified sugar beet betaine.

Found in Moisturising Day Cream.


Allantoin is an organic moisturiser. It increases the hygroscopicity of cells, and as a keratoplastic it softens the corneal layer of the skin, and it also has a vulneratic effect.

It is found in our Intensive Antioxidant Cream.


Vegeluron is a gel of plant origin based on polysaccharides from mushrooms. It boasts a super moisturising effect and is an excellent substitute for hyaluronic acid. It leaves a light protective film on the skin, which retains moisture and creates a silky feeling.

Vegeluron is found in Intensive Antioxidant Cream and Peptide Eye Serum.


Aloe vera – aloe extract has a moisturising effect based on the effects of polysaccharides, so it is used to care for dry skin. Polysaccharides act as moisturising ingredients by forming a thin film on the skin that retains moisture. It also has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and vulneratic effects.

Aloe is found in the Flower Toner with aloe vera in the form of a concentrate that is ten times more concentrated than aloe vera juice.

Sources and literature
1. Damjan Janeš in Nina Kočevar Glavač: Sodobna kozmetika, 1. Izdaja, Širimo dobro besedo d.o.o., Velenje 2015
2. Formula Botanica: Certificate in Organic Anti-Ageing Skincare, London 2018
3. Romana Predin: Učbenik Koža in bolezni kože v izobraževalnem programu Kozmetični tehnik, Ljubljana 2019
4. Darja Gornjak Korošec: E-knjiga Značilnosti zrele kože in aktivne učinkovine pomlajevalne kozmetike.

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